1.Institutional structure and population
SURFACE 45.227 Kmq
PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION – Estonia is almost entirely a flat country; only in the eastern area there are a few hills. Estonia is characterized by the presence of about 1000 islands. The most important ones are: Saaremaa 2672 Kmq and Hiiumaa 989Kmq. There are also lots of lakes and rivers, while the vegetation consists of beech trees, firs and poplars. Worth to be noticed is the contribution, which is being given in making protected areas to increase: an example of this tendency is the National Park of Saaremaa.
WEATHER – The Estonian weather is sub-continental, temperated-fresh one; winters are cold, while summers are fairly hot. July is the hottest month in the year, and the average temperature is +20 C, while February is the coldest one, and the average temperature is -5 C. Because of its lack of high relieves, Estonia is particularly exposed both to the cold Siberian and polar airstreams, and to the mild Atlantic ones. It rains a lot during the summer and at the beginning of the autumn. Usually, it snows for the first time between the end of October and the beginning of November.
BOUNDARIES – Latvia (South), Russia (East), Gulf of Finland (North), Baltic Sea (West).
CAPITAL CITY – Tallinn (430.000 inhabitants)
THE MOST IMPORTANT CITIES (according to the number of inhabitants) – Tartu (105.000); Narva (80.000); Kohtla-Järve (70.000); Pärnu (50.000).
2. Institutional structure and basic information
FLAG – Horizontally pinstriped, from the top: blue, black and white.
OFFICIAL DENOMINATION - Eesti Vabariik.
CONSTITUTION – It took effect in 1992 and it guaranteed the continuity of the democratic attitude of Constitution dated 1920.
FORM OF GOVERNMENT – Parliamentary Republic
PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC - Toomas Hendrik ILVES
CHIEF OF THE GOVERNMENT - Andrus ANSIP
FOREIGN MINISTER - Urmas PAET
LEGISLATIVE POWER – The monocameral Parliament (Riigikogu) is composed by 101 members, who are elected every 4 years by universal suffrage with proportional system.
EXECUTIVE POWER – It’s wielded by the Council of Ministers, which is presided over by the Prime Minister, after that he gained the confidence of the Parliament.
LEGAL POWER – The High Court of Cassation is the highest legal authority, which operated also as Constitutional Court.
UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE – Given to people, who came of age (18 years old)
3. Population and social markers
POPULATION – 1.344.684 (Estonian Statistics Institute, Jan.2006)
ANNUAL DEMOGRAPHIC INCREASE - -0,66%
ETHNIC GROUPS – Estonians: 67,9%; Russians: 25,6%; Ukrainians: 2,1%; Belorussians: 1,3%; Finns: 0,9%; others: 2,2%.
RELIGIONS – The majority of the populations professes Lutheran religion, then there is a noteworthy minority, who professes Orthodox religion, too (both Russian-orthodox and Greek-orthodox).
LANGUAGES – Official language: Estonian. Spoken language: Estonian 62%; Russian 38%; English is usually spoken, especially by new generations.
credits | F.A.Q.